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Banking

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Number of Basel Core Principles1 adopted or improved
  • Risk-Based Supervision implemented
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g. on-site/off-site supervision manuals adopted; new reporting requirements/formats adopted, licenses granted/turned-down, corrective actions applied, on-site inspections conducted, stress test conducted, analysis/reports produced and communicated, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Ratio of regulatory capital to risk-weighted assets (aggregate risk-based capital ratio)
  • Ratio of non-performing loans to gross loans
  • Ratio of non-performing loans net of provisions to capital

Inclusion/Access:

  • Percentage of adults having an account at a regulated financial institution
  • Number of bank accounts per 1000 adults
  • Number of SMEs with an outstanding loan or a line of credit
  • Percentage of SMEs with an outstanding loan or a line of credit

Depth:

  • Ratio of private sector credit to GDP

Efficiency:

  • Lending-deposit spread

Capital Markets

Government Bonds
Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g., issuance strategy and calendar published, appropriate size and frequency of new issuances adopted)
  • Benchmark Yield Curve established (i.e., concentrating government bond issues in a relatively limited number of popular standard maturities)
  • Number of IOSCO Principles1 adopted or improved
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Ratio of short-term to total bonds issued

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of new issues (could be specific on the targeted maturities)
  • Number of securities listed (government bonds)

Depth:

  • Ratio of government bonds outstanding to GDP
  • Value of new issues

Efficiency:

  • Average bid-ask spread (bid-ask spreads tend to be narrower in more liquid and efficient markets)
  • Government debt-issuance costs
Corporate Bonds
Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Number of IOSCO Principles adopted or improved
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted(e.g., corporate bond issuance practice, standard documentations such as prospectus, disclosure, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of new issues
  • Ratio of corporate bonds to total government and non-government bonds issued
  • Number of securities listed (corporate bonds)

Depth:

  • Corporate bonds outstanding to GDP (%)
  • Value of new issues

Efficiency:

  • Corporate bonds issuance costs
Equity Markets
Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Number of IOSCO Principles2 adopted or improved
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted(e.g., rulebook updated, auditing quality inspection conducted, reporting standards and disclosure requirements adopted)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Price/earnings ratio

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of securities listed (companies)

Depth:

  • Ratio of stock market capitalization to GDP
  • Amounts outstanding of derivatives (could be specific by type of instruments, e.g., foreign exchange contracts, interest rate contracts, equity-linked contracts, commodity-linked contracts)

Efficiency:

  • Average daily turnover ratio (value of stocks traded to capitalization, measuring the ability of a market to absorb large trade volumes without significant impact on market prices)

Insurance

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Number of Insurance Core Principles1 adopted or improved
  • Risk-Based Supervision implemented(Y/N)
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g. on-site/off-site supervision manuals adopted; new reporting requirements/formats adopted, licenses granted/turned-down, corrective actions applied, on-site inspections conducted, stress test conducted, analysis/reports produced and communicated, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Ratio of net assets to net premiums written (solvency ratio)
  • Ratio of technical reserves to net premiums

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of insurance policies holders per 1,000 adults 
    (breakdown by insurance type - live, non-life, MTPL, microinsurance; it can be expressed in % of adults or per 1,000 adults, in case of MTPL it's the % of vehicles insured)

Depth:

  • Ratio of insurance premiums to GDP (reported by insurance type - live, non-life, MTPL, microinsurance)

Efficiency:

  • Time to settle eligible claims (average, days)
  • Percentage of eligible claims settled

Pensions

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • New or amended laws/regulations enacted (e.g., mandatory/auto-enrolment law/regulations)
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g. new reporting requirements/formats adopted, on-site/off-site supervision manuals adopted; licensing activities conducted - received/accepted/turned-down, corrective actions applied, on-site inspections conducted, stress test conducted, analysis/reports produced, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Ratio of pension assets to its liabilities

  Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of employed workers contributing to pensions
  • Percentage of working age population with access to pensions

  Depth:

  • Ratio of pension assets to GDP

  Efficiency:

  • Ratio of pension costs (e.g., administration, customer acquisition, investment management) to assets under its management

Housing Finance

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Housing finance non-performing loans ratio

Inclusion/Access:

  • Percentage of adults having an outstanding loan to purchase a home, an apartment or land
  • Ratio of mortgage debts originated that are insured by mortgage insurance schemes to total mortgage debts (applicable for Mortgage Insurance intervention)

Depth:

  • Ratio of outstanding mortgage debts to GDP

Efficiency:

  • Lending-deposit spread

Microfinance

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g. on-site/off-site supervision manuals adopted; new reporting requirements/formats adopted, licenses granted/turned-down, corrective actions applied, on-site inspections conducted, stress test conducted, analysis/reports produced and communicated, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Stability:

  • Percentage of portfolio at risk

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of active loan accounts (% of which to women)
  • Number of active micro-saving accounts (% of which held by women)

Depth:

  • Value of outstanding microfinance loans portfolio

Efficiency:

  • Lending-deposit spread

Factoring

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g. factoring platform structure, operational guidelines, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of MSMEs with access to a bank loan using factoring mechanism
  • Number of lenders participating in factoring mechanism
  • Number of factoring transactions

Depth:

  • Value of loans through factoring

Efficiency:

  • Lending-deposit spread

Warehouse Receipt Finance

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g. warehouse management guidelines, etc.)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of financial institutions offering warehouse receipt financing
  • Number of MSMEs with access to a bank loan using warehouse receipt collaterals
  • Number of loans approved using warehouse receipts as collaterals

Depth:

  • Value of loans provided based on warehouse receipt collaterals

Efficiency:

  • Lending-deposit spread

Payment and Settlement Systems

Outcomes at the enabling environment level
(i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)
  • Number of new or amended laws/regulations enacted
  • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
  • Number of PFMIs1 Principles adopted or improved
  • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted
  • Clearing/settlement/depository infrastructures established or improved
Outcomes at sector level
(i.e., financial institutions)

Inclusion/Access:

  • Number of ATMs/POS per 100,000 adults
  • Number of accounts per 1,000 adults
  • Percentage of adults with a transaction account
  • Percentage of adults using mobile financial services

Depth:

 

    Credit Reporting

    Outcomes at the enabling environment level
    (i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)
    • New or amended laws/regulations enacted
    • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
    • Credit Bureau/Registry established or modernized
    • Number of banks and non-banks sharing data to Credit Bureau/Registry
    • Inquiries received by the Credit Registry
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)

    Stability(indirectly contributed):

    • Ratio of non-performing loans to gross loans

    Inclusion/Access:

    • Percentage of adults listed on Credit Registry/Bureau

    Depth (indirectly contributed):

    • Ratio of private credit to GDP

    Collateral Registry

    Outcomes at the enabling environment level
    (i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)
    • New or amended laws/regulations enacted
    • Registry established or modernized
    • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
    • Number of registrations
    • Number of searches
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)

    Inclusion/Access:

    • Number of SMEs that have received loans secured with movable property
    • Percentage of SMEs with an outstanding loan or a line of credit

    Depth:

    • Value of loans secured by movable collaterals

    Partial Credit Guarantee

    Outcomes at the enabling environment level
    (i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)
    • New or amended laws/regulations enacted
    • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted
    • PCG Fund is established
    • Number of new financial product(s) introduced
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)

    Stability:

    • Non-performing loans ratio

    Inclusion/Access:

    • Number of guarantees issued
    • Number of SMEs that received financing through the guarantee schemes
    • Percentage of SMEs with an outstanding loan or a line of credit

    Depth:

    • Value of guarantees issued
    • Value of financing provided based on guarantees

    Efficiency:

    • Number of recovered default cases
    • Value of recovered default cases

    Crisis Preparedness

    Outcomes at the enabling environment level
    (i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)
    • New or amended laws/regulations enacted (i.e., legal framework for crisis preparedness and management)
    • Institutional arrangements for crisis preparedness, management and prevention in place (e.g., creation of high level crisis management committee, lender-of- last-report facilities, deposit insurance schemes, corrective action framework, early intervention and resolution powers formalized)
    • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g., manuals, check list to use in crisis, simulations conducted, communications program, templates, etc.)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)

    Stability:

    • Financial institutions adopt strengthened risk management practices or stringent prudential requirements

    Bank Resolution

    Outcomes at the enabling environment level
    (i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)
    • New or amended laws/regulations enacted
    • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted (e.g., bank resolution framework and tools)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)

    Stability:

    • Ratio of distressed assets recovery

    Deposit Insurance

    Outcomes at the enabling environment level
    (i.e., legal, regulatory, supervisory, and infrastructure systems)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)
    • New or amended laws/regulations enacted
    • Recommended policies, procedures, methodology, tools adopted(e.g., membership, coverage, funding mechanism, premium assessment, stress tests, communication)
    Outcomes at sector level
    (i.e., financial institutions)

    Stability:

    • Ratio of fund reserved to insured deposits
    • Number of business days after an institution failure that depositors have access to insured funds either through payout or transfer of deposits to the successor